GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES

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GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES

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Introduction
The civil engineering projects are the main significance of a developed country.To fulfill all the project , grounds are required with their heavy bearing capacity.But in our INDIA it is a problem to find out good soil for civil engineering Works everywhere.So the knowledge of ground improvement techniques is the most important to the civil engineers. 
source CivilDigital.com

METHODS  FOR  GROUND  IMPROVEMENT
Replacement of soil 
Precompression of soil
Densification of soil
Reinforcement of Techniques
Grouting techniques
Stabilization using admixture
Geo textiles
Electro osmosis method
Replacement of soil 
It is the oldest and simplest soil improvement method.This strategy is to just uncover the inadmissible soil and supplant them with compacted fill.This is a typical method to remediate issues with collapsible soils. Evacuation and substitution is by and large reasonable just over the ground water table.
Precompression of soil
It is especially useful in soft clayey and silty soils because the static weight of the fill causes them to consolidate, thus improving both settlement and strength properties. 
Pre-compression has the following advantages:
1. The method has a long track record of success.
2. Any grading contractor can perform the work.

3. The cost is comparatively low, so long as soil for preloading is readily available. 
Densification of soil
The strength and stiffness of the soil is higher when the particles are packed in a dense configuration.This is most effective for improving soil characteristics. 
This can be aprroachs in following ways:
1.VIBRO TECHNIQUES

2.DYNAMIC COMPACTION
Reinforcement of Techniques
stone columns are used to increase the shear strength beneath structures .
The method consists of forming vertical holes in ground which are filled with compacted crushed stone, gravel and sand or a mixture.
Grouting techniques
source haywardbaker.com

PERMEATION GROUTING
 Stopping leaks in below-grade structures 
Stopping leaks in below-grade utilities 
Excavating support of non-corrosive soils
JET GROUTING
Jet grouting uses a special pipe equipped with horizontal jets that inject grout into the soil at high pressure.Teesta dam is the example of get grouting.
Stabilization using admixture
SOIL STABILIZATION: It is the process of improving the engineering properties of soil by mixing some binding agents thus binding the soil particles . Soil stabilization is classified as 
1.Mechanical stabilization 

2.Chemical stabilization 
Geo textiles

Geotextiles are porous fabrics manufactured products and others such as polyester ,poly-ethylene, polypropylene and poly vinyl chloride, nylon, fiber glass and various mixtures of these. 
Electro osmosis method
The electro osmosis process can be used to increase the shear strength and reduce the compressibility of soft clayey and silty soils beneath foundation, electro osmosis  with or without electrochemical hardening can be considered only for special situations where the alternative of piling cannot be adopted. 
Note
Mainly soil improvement techniques can be divided in to four broad categories.
1 Densification methods hand-off on propensity of granular soils to densify when subjected to vibrations. Anyway there is a plausibility of harming neighboring structures and pipelines because of use of this strategy.
2.Reinforcement techniques introduce discrete inclusions that stiffen and strengthen a soil deposit.
3.Grouting techniques involve the injection of cementicious materials into the voids of the soil or into fractures of the soil. 
4. Now a days, geotextiles are extensively used for improving the soil conditions. These has multiple applications as they act as filters, reinforcement, separations..etc.












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