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Karl Terzaghi is father of soil mechanics .his first book on soil mechanics is Erdbomechanics published in 1925.
The process of formation of soil is termed as pedegenisis .The soil is formed due to weathering of rocks which may be carried out either physically or chemically .Physical agencies involved in weathering of rocks include running water ,wind ,ice ,gravity etc . If the weathered rock material is retained over parent rock soil is termed as residual soil and if it is transported ,then soil is termed as transported soil.


1> ALLUVIAL SOIL  : Deposited from suspension in running water (formed due to physical weathering ,transported soil ,agency involved is water) .This type of soil is found along the bank of river .
2>Lacustrine :formed due to deposition from suspension in fresh still water of lake.
3> Marine soil : deposited from suspension in sea water .
4> Aeoline soil : It is the soil which is transported by wind.
5> Loess soil: It is uniformly graded wind blown silt ,slightly cemented due to calcium compound or montmorillonite .when it is wet it becomes soft and compressible because cementing action is loss and is collapsed .
6> Colluvial soil : it is formed due to transportation by gravity force .it is found in mountain valleys.
7>Glacial soil :it is the soil transported  by ice .
8>Marl soil : it is fine graded ,calcium carbonated soil of marine origin ,which is formed due to decomposition of animal bones and aquatic plants.
9> Bentonite soil :it is chemically weathered volcanic ash generally used as lubricant in drilling operation .it is also a clay containing a high amount of montmorilonite .it is highly plastic and have high swelling and shrinkage properties.
10>Tuff soil: Small grained ,slightly cemented volcanic ash that has been transported by wind or water.
11>Black cotton soil : It is residual soil,formed basalt ,containing a high %of clay mineral. it is dark in colour and good for growing cotton ,it shows high swelling and shrinkage and high compressibility and low shear strength  .
12>: Laterite soil :It is a type of soil formed due to leaching 
(washing out of silicious compound and accumulation of iron oxide .it is generally formed in hilly area having humid dimate .
13> Peat soil: it is highly organic soil which almost entirely consist of vegetative matters in different stage of is highly compresssible .
14> Loam soil : it is mixture of clay ,muck and sand .
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